ืขืฉ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืื• ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ: ืžื” ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื?

ื ืžืืก ืœืš ืœืžืฆื•ื ืฉื”ืžื–ื•ื•ื” ืฉืœืš ืคืœืฉ ืื• ืฉื”ืืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš ื ื™ื–ื•ืง ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื—ืจืงื™ื ื”ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื”ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืฉื”ื ืขืฉ? ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ื›ืœ ื”ืขืฉื™ื ื–ื”ื™ื. ื•ืื›ืŸ, ืขืฉ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืขืฉ ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ ื ื™ื–ื•ื ื™ื ืžืžืงื•ืจื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžืื•ื“, ื•ื‘ื›ืš ื’ื•ืจืžื™ื ื ื–ืงื™ื ืžื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ืœื‘ื™ืชื›ื. ื‘ืžืืžืจ ื–ื” ื ืคืจื˜ ืืช ื”ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ืขืฉื™ื ื”ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ื”ืœืœื•, ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื•ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืขื™ืœื™ื ืœืื™ืชื•ืจ ื•ื”ื“ื‘ืจืชื. ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ืืชื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืคืœื™ืฉืช ืขืฉ ื‘ืžื˜ื‘ื— ืฉืœื›ื ืื• ื ื–ืง ืœืืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœื›ื, ืื ื• ื ืกืคืง ืœื›ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžื™ื“ืข ื•ื”ื™ื™ืขื•ืฅ ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืœื›ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ืŸ ืขืœ ืžืจื—ื‘ ื”ืžื—ื™ื” ืฉืœื›ื ืžืคื ื™ ืคื•ืœืฉื™ื ืœื ืจืฆื•ื™ื™ื ืืœื•.

ืขืฉ, ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ื™ืชื™ื™ื ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื

ืœืžื“ ืืช ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœืขืฉ ื‘ื“ ื‘ืžืืžืจ ืื™ื ืคื•ืจืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ื–ื”. ืœืžื“ ืœื–ื”ื•ืช ืื•ืชื ื•ืœื—ืกืœ ืื•ืชื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืฉืœืš.

ืขืฉ: ื—ืจืงื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื, ืฆืจื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช

ืขืฉื™ื, ื”ื ืชืคืกื™ื ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื›ืžื˜ืจื“ื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื, ื”ื ืœืžืขืฉื” ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ื™ืชื™ื™ื ื–ืจืžื™ื ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื ื–ืง ืจื‘ ื‘ื‘ืชื™ื ืฉืœื ื•. ื—ืจืงื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืืœื•, ืืฃ ืฉืื™ื ื ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื™ืช, ืชื•ืงืคื™ื ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ ื•ืžื–ื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ื•ืคื›ื™ื ืืช ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืชื ืœื‘ืœืชื™ ืจืฆื•ื™ื” ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ื™ื ืคื•ืœืฉื ื™ืช.

ื˜ืงืกื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืงื˜ื ื” ืฉืœ ืขืฉ ื‘ื™ืชื™

ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ื ื“ื™ืคื™ื ืœื ืจืฆื•ื™ื™ื ืืœื• ืžืกื•ื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืœืฉืชื™ ืงื˜ื’ื•ืจื™ื•ืช: ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ื” ืขืฉ ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ. ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื, ืฉืืคืฉืจ ืœื–ื”ื•ืช ืื•ืชื ื‘ืžืขื•ืคื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื˜, ืžืขื“ื™ืคื™ื ืœื”ืชืžืงื ื‘ืžื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ื•ื‘ืžื–ื•ื•ื” ืฉืœื ื•, ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืœืชืงื•ืฃ ืืช ื”ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื™ื‘ืฉื™ื ืฉืœื ื•. ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื, ืขืฉ ื”ืงืžื— ื•ืขืฉ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืขืฉ ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ, ืžืฆื“ื, ื ื™ื–ื•ืŸ ืžืกื™ื‘ื™ื ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื ื›ืžื• ืฆืžืจ, ื›ื•ืชื ื” ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืฉื™. ืœืคื™ื›ืš, ื”ื ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ื™ื ืื™ื•ื ืžืžืฉื™ ืขืœ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื, ืฉื˜ื™ื—ื™ื ืื• ืจื”ื™ื˜ื™ื ืžืจื•ืคื“ื™ื.

ื–ื™ื”ื•ื™ ื•ื”ืฉืคืขื” ืฉืœ ืขืฉ

ื–ื™ื”ื•ื™ ื ื’ื™ืขื•ืช ืขืฉ ื“ื•ืจืฉ ืขื™ืŸ ื—ื“ื”. ืกื™ืžื ื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ืขื™ื ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืขืฉื™ื ื–ืขื™ืจื™ื ื”ืžืฉื•ื˜ื˜ื™ื ืœื™ื“ ืžืงื•ืจื•ืช ืžื–ื•ืŸ, ื—ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืื• ืืฉื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื–ื—ืœื™ื ื‘ืžื•ืฆืจื™ ืžื–ื•ืŸ. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ื–ืง ื—ื•ืžืจื™, ืขืฉ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื’ืจื•ื ื”ึฐืชื“ึทืจื“ึฐืจื•ึผืช ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื”ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ื”ืคื•ืœืฉื ื™ืช ืฉืœื”ื, ืœืคืขืžื™ื ื’ื•ืจืžืช ืœืชื’ื•ื‘ื•ืช ืืœืจื’ื™ื•ืช ืื• ืื™ ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ืžื”ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ืœื—ืœื•ืง ืืช ืžืจื—ื‘ ื”ืžื—ื™ื” ืขื ื”ืื•ืจื—ื™ื ื”ืœื ืจืฆื•ื™ื™ื ื”ืœืœื•.

ืืกื˜ืจื˜ื’ื™ื•ืช ื•ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืœืžื ื™ืขืช ืขืฉ

ื”ืžืื‘ืง ื ื’ื“ ืขืฉ ืกื•ื‘ื‘ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืžึฐื ึดื™ืขึธื” ื•ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ. ืžื ื™ืขื” ื›ื•ืœืœืช ืืžืฆืขื™ ื”ื™ื’ื™ื™ื ื” ื›ืžื• ื ื™ืงื•ื™ ืงื‘ื•ืข ืฉืœ ืืจื•ื ื•ืช, ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื›ืœื™ื ืื˜ื•ืžื™ื ืœืื—ืกื•ืŸ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ื›ื‘ื™ืกื” ืชื›ื•ืคื” ืฉืœ ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ. ื›ืฉืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืœืžื™ื’ื•ืจ ื–ื™ื”ื•ื ืคืขื™ืœ, ื”ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืฉืชื ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืœื›ื•ื“ื•ืช ืคืจื•ืžื•ื ื™ื, ืžื•ืฆืจื™ ืงื•ื˜ืœื™ ื—ืจืงื™ื ืืžืฆืขื™ื ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ื•ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉืงื™ื•ืช ืœื‘ื ื“ืจ ืื• ืืจื–, ื“ื•ื—ื™ื ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ืืœื•.

ืžืกืงื ื”: ืœืงืจืืช ื‘ื™ืช ื ืงื™ ืžืขืฉ

ืœืกื™ื›ื•ื, ื’ื™ืฉื” ืคืจื•ืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืขืจื ื•ืช ื™ื•ืžื™ื•ืžื™ืช ืžืชื’ืœื” ื›ื”ื’ื ื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืคืœื™ืฉื•ืช ืขืฉ. ืื™ืžื•ืฅ ืคืจืงื˜ื™ืงื•ืช ืืœื”, ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืขื ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื ืžืžื•ืงื“ื™ื, ืขื•ื–ืจ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื ืงื™ื™ื” ื•ื ื˜ื•ืœืช ืขืฉ. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื’ื™ืขื•ืช ื—ืžื•ืจื•ืช, ืจืฆื•ื™ ืœืงืจื•ื ืœืื ืฉื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืœืื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื“ื‘ืจื” ืืฉืจ ื™ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื• ืืช ื”ืฉืงื˜ ืื•ืชื• ืืชื ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื.

ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื ืขื™ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ืช ืœืื™ื›ื•ืช ื”ื—ื™ื™ื. ื”ื‘ื ื” ื•ืžืื‘ืง ื™ืขื™ืœ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื ื”ื•ืคื›ื™ื ืื– ืœื”ื›ืจื— ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื›ืœ ื“ื™ื™ืจ ืฉื“ื•ืื’ ืœื‘ื™ืชื•.

ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ: ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ

ื’ืœื” ืืช ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืฉ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœืขืฉ ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืขืฆื•ืช ืžื ื™ืขื” ื•ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืœื”ื™ืคื˜ืจ ืžื”ื.

ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื”ื ืžื›ืช ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื‘ื‘ืชื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื, ื”ืžืื•ืคื™ื™ื ืช ื‘ืคืจืคืจื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื”ื ืฆืคื™ื ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžื˜ื‘ื—. ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืชื ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœืื™ ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ื•ื ื–ืงื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื, ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ืคืš ื”ืชืขืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื”ื™ืจื” ื•ื™ืขื™ืœื” ืœื—ื™ื•ื ื™ืช. ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื™ืœื—ื ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืžืชืื™ืžื” ื‘ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ืืœื•, ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื•ืืช ื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื‘ื” ื”ื ืžืฉื’ืฉื’ื™ื.

ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ

ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ืืœื•, ื”ื ืงืจืื™ื ื’ื "ืขืฉ ืงืžื—", ื ื™ืชื ื™ื ืœื–ื™ื”ื•ื™ ืœืคื™ ื›ื ืคื™ื”ื ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืช ืื• ื”ืืคืจืคืจื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ื“ืœื ื”ืžืฉืชื ื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ 1.4 ืœ-2 ืก"ืž ืžื•ื˜ืช ื›ื ืคื™ื™ื. ื”ื–ื—ืœื™ื ืฉืœื”ื, ื‘ืฆื‘ืข ืœื‘ืŸ ืฉืžื ืช ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืขื ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื•ืจื“ืจื“ื™ื, ื”ื ื”ื’ื•ืจื ืœื ื–ืง ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื”ื ื ื™ื–ื•ื ื™ื ืžืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื™ื‘ืฉื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืฆื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ืžื–ื•ื•ื”, ื›ืžื• ืงืžื—, ื“ื’ื ื™ื, ืื’ื•ื–ื™ื ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื‘ืœื™ื ื™ื, ื•ืžืฉืื™ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื”ื ืจืฉืชื•ืช ืžืฉื™ื™ ืฉืžื–ื”ืžื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ.

ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืžื•ืขื“ืฃ ืฉืœ ืคื•ืœืฉื™ื ืืœื”

ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืขืฉ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืžืงื™ืฃ ื›ืœ ืื–ื•ืจ ืฉื‘ื• ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืžืื•ื—ืกืŸ ื•ื ื’ื™ืฉ. ื”ื ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื—ืžื™ื ื•ืœื—ื™ื, ืฉื‘ื”ื ืžื—ื–ื•ืจื™ ื”ืจื‘ื™ื™ื” ืžื•ืืฆื™ื. ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ื ื ื›ื ืกื™ื ืœื‘ืชื™ื ื“ืจืš ืืจื™ื–ื•ืช ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ื ื’ื•ืขื™ื, ื•ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื”ื•ืงืžื•, ื”ื ืžืชืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”ืจืื™ื™ื”.

ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืžืขืฉื™ื™ื ืœื”ื“ื‘ืจืช ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืœื ืจืฆื•ื™ื™ื ืืœื”, ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื™ื™ืฉื ืžืกืคืจ ื˜ืงื˜ื™ืงื•ืช. ืจืฆื•ื™ ืœืื—ืกืŸ ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื›ืžื• ืงืžื— ื‘ืžืงืคื™ื ืœืžื ื™ืขืช ื ื’ื™ืขื•ืช. ื’ื ื ื™ืงื•ื™ ืฉื•ื˜ืฃ ืฉืœ ืืจื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื›ืœื™ื ืื˜ื•ืžื™ื ืœืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื™ื‘ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื’ื‘ืœืช ื”ืชืคืฉื˜ื•ืชื. ื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฆื•ืช ืขื ืžื“ืจื™ื›ื™ื ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ืขืฆื•ืช ืœื”ืกืจืช ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืื™ืคื” ื” ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ืžื ื™ืขื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื™ ื‘ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืจื™ืื”.

ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ืžืชืžืฉื›ืช, ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืžืงื™ืคื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ืžืœื›ื•ื“ื•ืช ืคืจื•ืžื•ื ืœื™ื•ืช ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช ืื• ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื ืžืชืื™ืžื™ื ืœื”ื“ื‘ืจืช ื—ืจืงื™ื. ื‘ืžืงืจื™ื ืžืกื•ื™ืžื™ื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื•ื™ืชืืคืฉืจ ืคื™ืฆื•ื™ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ื“ื™ืจื”, ืœื›ืŸ ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ื”ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ื™ื ื”ื ื•ื’ืขื™ื ืœืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ืกืขื™ืคื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ื–ื” ืฉืœื›ื.

ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืžืกืชืžืš ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื ืช ืžื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื”ื ื•ื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื”ืžื•ืขื“ืคืช ืขืœื™ื”ื. ืคืขื•ืœื” ืžื•ื ืขืช ืžืชื—ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืืžืฆืขื™ ื‘ืงืจื” ืžืชืื™ืžื™ื ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ื ื‘ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ืฉืœืžื•ืช ื”ืืกืคืงื” โ€‹โ€‹ืฉืœื ื• ื•ืฉืœ ื”ืžื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืฉืœื ื•. ืœืžื™ื“ืข ื ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ื ื–ืง ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื—, ื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฆื•ืช ืขื ืืกืžื›ืชืื•ืช ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืื™ืจ ืขื™ื ื™ื™ื, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื™ื“ืข ืขืœ ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ื•ื”ื—ื–ืจื™ ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ื“ื™ืจื”. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ืœืžื™ ืฉืจื•ืฆื” ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ื ืงื™ื•ืช ืžื›ื™ืžื™ืงืœื™ื, ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ื›ืžื• ืืœื• ื”ืžื•ืฆืขื™ื ืขืœ ืคื™ื ื•ื™ ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ืฉืœ ืขืฉ ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืชืื™ื ืœืžืื‘ืง ื‘ืขืฉ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ.

ื–ื™ื”ื•ื™ ื ื’ื™ืขื•ืช ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ

ื’ืœื” ืืช ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœืขืฉ ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื–ื”ื•ืช ื•ืœืžื ื•ืข ืื•ืชื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืžื™ื“ืข ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื™ ืœื”ื’ื ื” ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš.

ื” ืžืฉืงื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื ืชืงืœื™ื ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ืฉืžืฉื‘ืฉื™ื ืืช ื”ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช. ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืœื”, ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ืœื˜ื™ื ื‘ื™ื›ื•ืœืชื ืœืชืงื•ืฃ ืืกืคืงื”. ืœื“ืขืช ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœื–ื”ื•ืช ืื•ืชื ื”ื•ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ืœืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื”ืžื–ื•ื•ื” ืฉืœืš. ื”ื ื” ื›ืžื” ืกื™ืžื ื™ื ืžืขื™ื“ื™ื ื”ืžืขื™ื“ื™ื ืขืœ ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ืคื•ืœืฉื™ื ื”ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื”ืœืœื•.

ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื—ื–ื•ืชื™ืช: ื–ื—ืœื™ื ื•ืขืฉื™ื

ืื™ื ื“ื™ืงื˜ื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืœื”ื“ื‘ืงื” ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ืขืฉ ื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื. ืืœื” ื—ืจืงื™ื ืžืขื•ืคืคื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื, ื‘ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืขืฉ, ื ืฆืคื™ื ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœื™ื“ ืžืงื•ืจื•ืช ืžื–ื•ืŸ. ื”ื ื ื•ื˜ื™ื ืœื”ืชื›ื ืก ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื•ืœื”ืื›ื™ืœ, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืืจื•ื ื•ืช ืื• ืžื’ื™ืจื•ืช ืžื˜ื‘ื—.
ื™ืชืจ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ, ื” ื–ื—ืœื™ ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื ืจืื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืฆืจื›ื™ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš. ืืชื” ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืœืขื™ื ืœื‘ื ื•ืช ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ืื• ื—ื•ื˜ื™ ืžืฉื™, ื”ื ืžืฆืื™ื ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืฉืงื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืงืžื—, ื“ื’ื ื™ื, ืื’ื•ื–ื™ื ืื• ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื™ื‘ืฉ ืื—ืจ. ืืœื• ื”ื ืฉืœื‘ื™ ื”ื–ื—ืœ ืฉืœ ืขืฉ ืืฉืจ ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช ื”ื•ืคื›ื™ื ืœื—ืจืงื™ื ืžืขื•ืคืคื™ื.

ื˜ื™ืคื•ืช ื•ืจืฉืชื•ืช ืžืฉื™: ืจืื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื—ืฉื™ื•ืช

ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ืžื“ื•ืงื“ืงืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ ืฉืœืš ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื’ืœื•ืช ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื’ืœืœื™ื ืขืฉ ื‘ืฆื•ืจืช ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ืฉื—ื•ืจื•ืช ืื• ืืคื•ืจื•ืช ืงื˜ื ื•ืช. ื’ืœืœื™ื ืืœื• ื”ื ืœื ืจืง ืกื™ืžืŸ ืœื”ื“ื‘ืงื” ืืœื ื’ื ืกื›ื ื” ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœื™ืช ืœื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชืš, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื ืขืœื•ืœื™ื ืœื–ื”ื ืžื–ื•ืŸ.
ื™ืชืจ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ, ื”ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืคื™ืœื” ืžืฉื™ื™ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืืจื™ื–ื•ืช ืื• ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืžื“ืคื™ื ื”ื•ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืœื›ืš ืฉื”ื–ื—ืœื™ื ื”ื—ืœื• ืœื”ืชืคืชื— ื‘ืืกืคืงื” โ€‹โ€‹ืฉืœืš. ืจืฉืชื•ืช ืืœื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœื”ื™ื“ืžื•ืช ืœืงื•ืจื™ ืขื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื•ืœืฉืžืฉ ื›ืื™ื ืงื•ื‘ื˜ื•ืจ ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื–ื—ืœื™ื.

ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืฆื˜ื‘ืจื™ื: ืื™ื ื“ื™ืงืฆื™ื” ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช

ื›ืืฉืจ ื“ื’ื ื™ื, ืงืžื—ื™ื ืื• ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื™ื‘ืฉื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืจืื™ื ืžื’ื•ืฉืžื™ื ืื• ื“ื‘ื•ืงื™ื ื™ื—ื“ ื‘ื’ื•ืฉื™ื, ื–ื” ืขืœื•ืœ ืœืื•ืชืช ืขืœ ื ื’ื™ืขื•ืช ืขืฉ. ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ืืœื• ืžืฉืื™ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื”ื ื ืชึทืคื˜ึดื™ืจ, ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ืขื•ื‘ืฉ ื”ืžืืคืฉืจ ืœื—ืœืงื™ืงื™ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœื”ื™ืฆืžื“ ื–ื” ืœื–ื”.
ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ืชื’ื•ื‘ื” ืžื™ื™ื“ื™ืช ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉืžืชื’ืœื™ื ืื•ืชื•ืช ืื–ื”ืจื” ืืœื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ื‘ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ื”ืชืคืฉื˜ื•ืช ื•ื”ื ื–ืง ืฉื ื’ืจื. ืืžืฆืขื™ ืžื ื™ืขื” ื•ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ืžื™ื’ื•ืจ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืžืฆื•ื ื‘ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ื”ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืžื•ื›ื—ื™ื ื•ื™ืขื™ืœื™ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืœื”ื™ืœื—ื ื‘ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ. ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช, ื”ื—ืœ ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืฆืžื—ื™ ื”ื’ื ืช ืขืฉ, ื•ืขื“ ืขืฆื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื, ื–ืžื™ื ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืืชื’ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื”ื–ื”.

ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื ื•ื™ืขื™ืœื™ื

ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืชืจื•ืคื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช, ื›ืžื• ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืขืฉื‘ื™ ืชื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื•ืชื‘ืœื™ื ื™ื ื”ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื›ื“ื•ื—ื™ื ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื, ื”ืžืกื•ื’ืœื™ื ืœืžื ื•ืข ืื• ืœืขืฆื•ืจ ืคืœื™ืฉื•ืช. ื˜ืจื™ืงื™ื ื›ืžื• ื”ื ื—ืช ืขืœื™ ื“ืคื ื” ืื• ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืฉืžื ื™ื ืืชืจื™ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื”ืจื—ื™ืง ืืช ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจื™ื ื”ืœื ืจืฆื•ื™ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืžืืกืคืงืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš.

ืœืกื™ื›ื•ื: ืขืจื ื•ืช ื•ื”ื™ืขื ื•ืช

ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ื ื•ืช ืžื“ื•ืงื“ืงืช ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืช ื”ืžื–ื•ื•ื” ืฉืœืš ื•ื‘ืžืฆื‘ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš ืชืืคืฉืจ ืœืš ืœื–ื”ื•ืช ื—ื“ื™ืจื” ืืคืฉืจื™ืช ืฉืœ ืขืฉ ืžื–ื•ืŸ. ืชืคืงื— ืขืœื™ื”ื ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื–ื™ื”ื•ื, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืขืฉื™ื ืžืขื•ืคืคื™ื, ื–ื—ืœื™ื, ืงื•ืจื™ ืžืฉื™ ื•ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืžื’ื•ืฉื, ื•ืœื ืงื•ื˜ ืคืขื•ืœื” ืžื™ื™ื“ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืคืชื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื‘ืขื™ื”. ืฉืœ ื” ืืกื˜ืจื˜ื’ื™ื•ืช ืžื ื™ืขื” ื–ืžื™ื ื™ื ื’ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ื”ื™ืฉื ื•ืช ื•ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื”ื”ืคืจืฉื•ืช ืฉืœืš ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”ืืจื•ืš.